Generally, the two most popular options for solar powered systems today are Lead Acid and Lithium batteries. Lead Acid batteries can be flooded (higher maintenance at lower cost) or AGM (lower maintenance at higher cost).
Taking a closer look at lithium batteries, the most popular lithium battery type is Lithium-Ion battery. Regarding Solar powered systems most used type is Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP).
Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
The electrochemical performance of lithium phosphate is excellent, and it has a low resistance. The key advantages are the high current rating and long cycle life, as well as good thermal stability, greater safety, and tolerance if mishandled.
When sustained at high voltage for an extended period of time, lithium-phosphate is more tolerant of full charge circumstances and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems. The specific energy is lower than that of cobalt-blended lithium-ion batteries due to the lower nominal voltage of 3.2V/cell.
In most batteries, including Li-phosphate, cold temperatures limit performance while excessive storage temperatures degrade service life. Li-phosphate batteries have a higher self-discharge than Li-ion batteries, which can cause age balancing problems. This can be solved by investing in high-quality cells and/or using sophisticated control circuits, both of which increase the cost of the battery pack. For long-term success, manufacturing hygiene is essential. If the battery is exposed to moisture, it will only last 50 cycles.
Lead-acid starter batteries are routinely replaced with lithium-phosphate starter batteries. When four cells are connected in series, they produce 12.80V, which is equivalent to six 2V lead-acid cells connected in series.
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
Lithium cobalt oxide batteries, also known as lithium cobaltite or lithium-ion cobalt batteries, are made from lithium carbonate and cobalt. Because of their high specific energy, these batteries are employed in cell phones, laptops, and electronic cameras. Lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode during discharge, with the flow reversing when the battery is charged. They have a cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite carbon anode.
Short battery life and poor specific power are two of the battery's drawbacks. We'd also like to point out that these batteries aren't as safe as others. Despite this, their qualities make them a popular choice for cell phones and other portable electrical gadgets.
Lithium Manganese Oxide
Lithium manganese oxide batteries are also known as lithium manganate batteries, lithium-ion manganese batteries, li-manganese batteries, and manganese spinel batteries. Lithium manganese oxide batteries are distinguished from others by their high temperature stability, and they are also safer than other lithium-ion battery kinds. As a result, they're commonly found in medical devices and equipment, but they can also be used in power tools, electric motorbikes, and other uses. Laptop computers and electric vehicles can both benefit from lithium manganese oxide batteries.